Apiculture is basically the study and management of honeybees. The apiculture process begins with the honey bees that collect nectar from flowers from which honey is prepared. Although most apiculture information consists of details on honeybees alone, in reality all bees play a very important role in the pollination of flowering plants and crops. Hence nowadays apiculture information also includes the study and management of non- Apis bees such as leafcutter bees and bumblebees. Honeybees are indigenous to the African and Eurasian continents. Bees basically collect nectar and pollen. Pollen is the source of protein that is required by the bees for the development of their breed whereas nectar is the carbohydrate that provides them with energy. Nectar is essentially a sugar solution that contains almost 80 % of water and 20 % of sugar and is produced by flowering plants. Honey bees tend to store this nectar in their honey sac when they are foraging and in this sac the enzyme invertase changes the complex sugars into simple sugars known as mono-saccharides. One the bees return to their hives they will disgorge the nectar solution that is partially converted and then give it to the other bees. Cereal crops such as plants like mango, coconut banana, cacao, peanut, citrus etc and corn are known to be the favorites of honey bees.
Apiculture involves beekeeping which is a highly lucrative industry as there is a growing demand for honey and honey products. The ideal and best flow of honey is typically from the months of November to December. From the months of January to February the bee colonies will hibernate. In the wet season which usually lasts from July to August, the bee colonies are moved to the lowlands where they can find other sources of nectar. Honey is a non perishable natural product that is too dry for microbes to survive in and can be stored for long periods of time in a dry and cool environment. Honeybees are known to communicate with each other and transmit information pertaining to details about the quality, location and quantity of food sources. Apiculture also talks about the role of the bee keeper who needs to ensure that the temperature of the broods nest is maintained at between 30 to 34 degrees C even in the thick of winter. Honey bees can easily be affected by various microbes, viruses and mites and hence have to be monitored carefully.